The predominant antibody found in a primary immune response is:
The major immunoglobulin class in normal adult human serum is:
A 25-year-old male student presents with the chief complaint of rash. He denies headache, fever, or myalgia. A slightly pruritic maculopapular rash is noted over the abdomen, trunk, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet. Inguinal, occipital, and cervical lymphadenopathy is also noted. Hypertrophic, flat, wartlike lesions are noted around the anal area. Laboratory studies show the following: Hct: 40%, Hgb: 14 g/dL, WBC: 13,000/μL, Diff: 50% segmented neutrophils, 50% lymphocytes Which of the following is the most useful laboratory test in this patient?
a. Human papillomavirus (HPV) serology
b. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test
c. Nucleic acid amplification test for Chlamydia
d. Blood cultures
e. Biopsy of perianal lesions
A 70-year-old patient with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus presents with complaints of pain in the left ear with purulent drainage. On physical examination, the patient is afebrile. T he pinna of the left ear is tender, and the external auditory canal is swollen and edematous. T he white blood cell count is normal.
Which of the following organisms is most likely to grow from the purulent drainage?
a. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
b. Streptococcus pneumoniae
c. Candida albicans
d. Haemophilus influenzae
e. Moraxella catarrhalis
A 48-year-old black female complains of joint pain and morning stiffness over 4 months. Examination reveals swelling of the wrists and MCPs as well as tenderness and joint effusion in both knees. The rheumatoid factor is positive, antibodies to cyclic citrullinated protein are present, and subcutaneous nodules are noted on the extensor surfaces of the forearm.
Which of the following statements is correct?
a. Prednisone 60 mg per day should be started
b. The patient has RA and should be evaluated for disease-modifying antirheumatic therapy
c. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be added to aspirin
d. The patient’s prognosis is highly favorable
e. The patient should receive a 3-month trial of full-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent before determining whether and/or what additional therapy is indicated.