- Chronic stable angina is the manifestation of ischemic heart disease in approximately half of patients with CAD.
- Typical angina pectoris is described as (a) retrosternal pressure, pain, discomfort, or heaviness that (b) radiates to the neck, jaw, left arm, or shoulder,(c) precipitated by exertion and relieved by rest or nitroglycerin, lasting <10 minutes.
- Associated symptoms include dyspnea, diaphoresis, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, or lightheadedness.
- Women (more than men) may complain of epigastric discomfort that otherwise presents like typical angina.
- Diabetic patients may experience anginal equivalent symptoms (e.g., fatigue, epigastric distress) that are suspicious for underlying ischemia.